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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
1. How is India planning to end child marriage
GS Paper 3:
1. FAO’S State of Food and Agriculture report 2022
2. New hope for malaria vaccine
Content for Mains Enrichment
1. Tribal culture preservation and Integration
Facts for Prelims:
1. Raja Rammohun Roy
2. Janjatiya Gaurav Diwas
3. EWS quota Constitutional
4. Deemed to be Universities
6. National SC-ST Hub Scheme
7. Excellence in Urban Transport
8. UN Resident Coordinator
9. India-UK Free Trade Agreement
10. Niveshak Didi
11. Black Honeybee
12. Snow leopard
13. Falcon Heavy rocket
14. Mapping
Syllabus: Indian Society; Social Justice; Issues related to women; Governance
Source: The Hindu 
Direction: The article is almost a complete note on “Issues of Child Marriage”. You may note down relevant points.
Context: This is the Hindu explained article. UNFPA-UNICEF Global Programme to End Child Marriage team is on a visit to India to witness state interventions which have helped reduce the prevalence of child marriage.
Child marriage in India is defined as the marriage solemnized between two people where the female is below the age of 18 years or the male is below the age of 21 years.
Status of child marriage in India
As per the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), India is home to the largest number of child brides in the world – accounting for a third of the global total.
Reasons for the prevalence of child marriage in India
Other determinants of Child Marriage:

Consequences of child marriage:

Fig: Vicious cycle of Child Marriage and Poverty
Laws and policy interventions:
Raising the legal age of marriage as a tool to curb child marriage: Recently the cabinet has approved increasing the marriage age of women from 18 to 21. If implemented, it will bring the age of marriage for both men and women to par.
How the raising the age will help to curb Child marriage
Limitation of the measure to curb the child marriage
Way forward
Case study: Karnataka: Percentage of child marriages in Karnataka (from 42% in 2005-06 to 21.3% in 2019-20). Several thousand child marriage prohibition officers have been notified in Karnataka and 90,000 local gram panchayat members have been oriented to spread awareness of child marriage.
One should not address a problem immediately by legislation. One needs to understand the core societal issue. Girls need to get equal opportunities in terms of health, education, and living. Bringing in more women to the workforce like in South Korea and Japan can also help to improve gender imbalance and solve issues of early marriages
Insta Links:
 Mains Links:
Q. Bring out the reasons for the prevalence of child marriages in India. Will the raising of the legal age of marriage for girls help mitigate the issue? Discuss. (15M)
Syllabus: e-Technology in the aid of farmers
Source: DTE
Context: According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agricultural automation might exacerbate inequality if technology is inaccessible to small-scale producers and other marginalised groups.
Agriculture automation covers all the practices that help with planting and harvesting with the aid of machines and other devices.
Background: The recently released FAO’S State of Food and Agriculture report 2022 looked at how agricultural automation (which includes anything from tractors to artificial intelligence) in our agri-food systems can contribute to achieving sustainable development goals.
Highlights of the report:
Recommendations given in the report on how to minimise risks:
Case Study – TROTRO Tractor in Ghana: It is a platform that connects farmers and tractor operators and through thousands of tractor owners can provide tractor-hire services to farmers.
Way ahead:
Insta Links:
e-Technology in the aid of farmers
Syllabus: Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life
Source: Indian Express
Context: The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recently approved RTS, S/AS01 (Mosquirix) developed by GlaxoSmithKline for immunising children against malaria was a big milestone after decades of gradual progress.
About Malaria disease:
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. It is caused by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito if the mosquito itself is infected with a malarial parasite.
There are five kinds of malarial parasites out of which Plasmodium falciparum (parasite is responsible for 70% of cases in India), and Plasmodium vivax (globally, the commonest ones).
Need to develop vaccine:
About the RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix) vaccine:
 Decoding the name of the vaccine:

Case of India – Why hasn’t India been more successful in developing such vaccines?
What is required:
Insta Links:
Mains Link:
What is Mosquirix, the first malaria vaccine to get the WHO’s backing?
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) has recreated the huts of several communities at its different regional centres, especially those of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
 These huts are made using authentic design, and traditional materials, and are often with participation from tribal communities.
The zonal anthropological museums of AnSI are important tourist destinations and the construction of these tribal huts within the museum premises will help to increase the interest of visitors and bring out the essence of indigenous traditional tribal culture.
 Source: PIB
Context: The Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation of the Ministry of Culture recently organised a dance drama program titled ‘Yugpurush Raja Rammohun Roy’ based on the theme ‘Nari Samman.’
In collaboration with David Hare and Alexander Duff, who of the following established Hindu College at Calcutta? (2009)
(a) Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(c) Keshab Chandra Sen
(d) Raja Rammohan Roy
Ans: (d)
Source: PIB
Context: To commemorate the contribution of the tribal freedom fighters,  the Ministry of Education is celebrating the ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’.
The government had declared 15th November as ‘Janjatiya Gaurav Divas’ dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
15th November is the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda who is revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities across the country.
About Birsa Munda:
Source: The Hindu, Indian Express
 Direction: We will give a descriptive analysis of the judgement in the coming days.
Context: The Supreme Court upheld the validity of reservation to economically weaker sections (EWS) of society among the general category by a majority judgment of 3:2.
Arguments by Judges:
Favours: The state can make special provisions and the exclusion of SEBCs, STs, SCs, and OBCs does not violate the equality code. Reservation should have a deadline to usher in an egalitarian society. Efforts should be made to eliminate the causes of backwardness.
Against the quota: Reservation on the basis of economic criterion is per se valid, but excluding others who are backward (SC/ST/OBC/SEBC) is a violation of the basic structure. All the poorest, regardless of caste or class, are discriminatory. Strikes at the essentials of non-discriminatory rule.
 Government’s View: The government maintained that the 10% quota was not an addition to the 50% ceiling on the reservation. It said the EWS quota was an “independent compartment”. The government has said it will increase seats by 25% in its institutions to accommodate the EWS quota.
Background: The 10% EWS quota was introduced under the 103rd Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2019 by amending Articles 15 and 16. It inserted Article 15 (6) and Article 16 (6). Economic reservation in jobs and admissions in educational institutes for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) among forward communities.
Source: Hindustan Times
 Context:  UGC has come up with new UGC (Institutions Deemed to be Universities) Regulations, 2022 thus replacing the previous 2019 guidelines. The new regulation is in line with New Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
Deemed-to-be-university is an accreditation granted to higher educational institutions in India by the Department of Higher Education, which imparts the academic status and privileges of a university. There are over 150 such institutions currently.
Now institutions need not be in existence for a minimum of 20 years before they can apply for the tag of “Deemed to be Universities”.
The basic criteria for institutions to have this tag is having multi-disciplinary programmes and courses (more than 5); accreditation of over 3.1 CGPA by NAAC three years in a row etc.
Source: The Hindu
Context: Union Rural Development Ministry has removed the existing cap of 20 simultaneous works per gram panchayat and increased it to up to 50, on account of the large size of the gram panchayat.
Other contentious issues: Centre is alleged to owe ₹19 crores for social audit in MGNREGA, but it has given only ₹2.69 crores till now; the Government has reduced person days under MGNREGA, thus impacting the job security of the poor in the states.
Previously, the Centre had accepted various recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee.
It guarantees “the right to work”, by legally providing at least 100 days of wage employment in rural India.
Source: PIB
Context: Recently a review meeting for the scheme was conducted by the Union Minister of MSME
The scheme aims to support SC/ST entrepreneurs by mandating 4% procurement by the CPSE from them, providing credit-linked capital subsidy, Special marketing assistance etc. It is being implemented by National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), under the Ministry of MSME.
Source: The Hindu
Context: Navi Mumbai (best public transport system for its city bus service), Ahmedabad (most sustainable transport system for its BRTS), Lucknow, and Delhi bag awards for excellence in urban transport; Chennai awarded for Best Intelligent Transport System (ITS) in the 15th Urban Mobility India (UMI) Conference and Expo
The conference was organised by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in collaboration with the Government of Kerala on the theme– ‘[email protected]–Sustainable Aatma Nirbhar Urban Mobility’.
 Source: The Hindu
Context: Siddharth Chatterjee, who rose to become the United Nations (UN) Resident Coordinator for China, is currently leading the UN and its 26 agencies in China.
About the UN Resident Coordinator (RC):
Source: Live Mint
Context: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has warned that the proposal on intellectual property (IP) rights in the draft India-UK FTA may hurt the global supply of generic medicines.
India-UK FTA started in 2007 and has been stuck on several contentious issues including migration, patent laws and tariffs.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that contains the same chemical substance as a drug that was originally protected by chemical patents.
MSF or Doctors Without Borders is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation  (HQ: Paris, France) best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Source: Live Mint
Context: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has warned that the proposal on intellectual property (IP) rights in the draft India-UK FTA may hurt the global supply of generic medicines.
India-UK FTA started in 2007 and has been stuck on several contentious issues including migration, patent laws and tariffs.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that contains the same chemical substance as a drug that was originally protected by chemical patents.
MSF or Doctors Without Borders is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation  (HQ: Paris, France) best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
‘Doctors Without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontiercs)’, often in the news, is (2016)
a) A division of the World Health Organization
b) A non-governmental international organization
c) An inter-government agency sponsored by European Union
d) A specialized agency of the United Nations
Answer: B
Source: PIB
Context: India Post Payments Bank (IPPB), conducted India’s First Floating Financial Literacy Camp with an initiative called ‘Niveshak Didi’ to promote Financial Literacy.
‘Niveshak Didi’ initiative is based on the ideology of women for women as rural area women feel more comfortable sharing their queries with a female itself.
The Floating Financial Literacy Camp was conducted among the local residents around the world-famous Dal Lake of Srinagar, J&K. 
 Source: The Hindu
Context: A new species of endemic honeybee named Apis karinjodian or Indian black honeybee, has been discovered in the Western Ghats, taking the species of honeybees in the world to 11.
About the new species:
The research has given the country’s apiculture a new direction as it is home to three species of cavity-nesting honey bees: Apis indica, Apis cerana and Apis karinjodian.
 Source: The Hindu
Context: The first-ever snow leopard recording from the Baltal-Zojila region has renewed hope for the elusive predator in higher altitudes of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
So far, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand have completed the Snow Leopard Population Assessment of India (SPAI).
About the Snow leopard:
It is a good indicator species (whose presence, absence or abundance reflects a specific environmental condition) as it quickly reacts to habitat disturbances.
 Source: The Hindu
Context: Recently, Elon Musk-owned SpaceX launched the Falcon Heavy rocket into a geosynchronous Earth orbit from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.
The Falcon Heavy rocket:
Current mission: This is the fourth launch of the giant rocket system, carrying satellites to space for the U.S. military in a mission named U.S. Space Force (USSF)-44.
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