InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
1. Biased media, agenda-driven debates weakening democracy
2. Indian Antarctic Bill 2022 passed
3. The ICJ’s latest judgment in the case of genocide against Myanmar
GS Paper 3:
1. Bank nationalisation: Blunder or masterstroke?
Content for Mains enrichment (Ethics/Essay)
1. Heteropessimism
2. Initiatives by State Government: Gujarat
Facts for Prelims:
1. Coastal Erosion
2. Bioeconomy
3. WHO declares monkeypox as PHEIC
4. Migratory monarch butterflies officially declared ‘endangered’
5. India to set up joint theatre commands
Syllabus: Judiciary
Source: Indian Express
Context: India’s CJI  has highlighted concerns that “ill-informed and agenda-driven debates” and “biased views” are weakening democracy.
Importance of Judiciary: Judiciary as “the organ which breathes life into the Constitution: Judicial review of legislative and executive actions is an integral part of the Constitutional scheme. It is the heart and soul of the Indian Constitution.”
Other concerns
Impact of Social Media on the institution of judiciary
Insta Links
Regulation of Social media
Syllabus: Government policies and interventions
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Lok Sabha passed the Indian Antarctica Bill, 2022 under its obligations as a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty
Objectives: To demilitarise Antarctica, establish it as a zone free of nuclear tests and the disposal of radioactive waste, and ensure that it is used for peaceful purposes only; to promote international scientific cooperation in Antarctica and to set aside disputes over territorial sovereignty.
Need for legislation:
Key features of the bill:
About Antarctic Treaty
Nodal Agency: National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCPOR) (estb. 1998)- Under ministry of earth science
India’s Antarctic Programme

Practice Questions
Q. Discuss the objectives of the Antarctic Treaty. Is it relevant still today? Discuss. (15M)
Q. The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause, of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole?
(a) Presence of prominent tropospheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(b) Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(c) Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons.
(d) Increased temperature in the polar region due to global warming
Answer: B
Syllabus: International Relation
Source: Indian Express
Myanmar’s military launched what it called a clearance campaign in Rakhine state in 2017 in the aftermath of an attack by a Rohingya insurgent group. More than 700,000 Rohingya fled into neighbouring Bangladesh and Myanmar security forces have been accused of mass rapes, killings and torching of thousands of Rohingya homes.
Amid international outrage at the treatment of the Rohingya, Gambia filed the case with the world court in November 2019, alleging that Myanmar is breaching the genocide convention.
So far, only three cases of genocide worldwide have been recognised since World War II: Cambodia (the late 1970s), Rwanda (1994), and Srebrenica, Bosnia (1995).
About ICJ:
The Genocide Convention:
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an instrument of international law that codified for the first time the crime of genocide.
According to the Genocide Convention, genocide is a crime that can take place both in times of war as well as in the time of peace.
Syllabus: Effects of liberalisation on the economy (post-1991 changes)
Source: Indian Express
Context: 53rd anniversary of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nationalising 14 banks. The government will bring legislative changes in the current session of Parliament to enable it to privatise PSBs (denationalization of Banks).
Nationalization is the process in which the government of a country or a state takes control of a specific company or industry. The post-1967 period saw a series of radical economic policies such as the nationalization of the 14 biggest commercial banks (1969), insurance (1972), coal industry (1973), an effort to nationalize wholesale wheat trade (1973), the takeover of ‘sick’ companies, etc.

Aim of bank nationalization of 1969: Government aimed to take away the control from a few private players and expand the banking coverage to rural India so that sectors such as agriculture and small industries could get better credit facilities, thus creating a new class of entrepreneurs.
Nationalization of the 1970s was a bad move as it led to:
However, nationalization did help the Indian economy as it led to:
Thus, conceptually nationalization was a good idea as it pushed for redistribution of wealth, job creation, and financial inclusion. However, efforts should have been taken to improve efficiency and make PSUs competitive as was done by China.
Insta Links
Nationalization of Banks
Practice Questions
Q. What were the factors that led to the nationalisation of banks? Examine its impact on economic development and job creation. (15M)
Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2019)
1.Coal sector was nationalized by the Government of India under Indira Gandhi.
2.Now, coal blocks are allocated on lottery basis
3.Till recently, India imported coal to meet the shortages of domestic supply, but now India is self-sufficient in coal production.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Both statement 2 and 3 are incorrect. Coal is allotted in auction and India still imports coals (especially coking coal)
The basic aim of Lead Bank Scheme is that ( UPSC 2012)
(a) big banks should try to open offices in each district
(b) there should be stiff competition among the various nationalized banks
(c) individual banks should adopt particular districts for intensive development
(d) all the banks should make intensive efforts to mobilize deposits
Answer: C
The Lead Bank Scheme, introduced in year 1969, envisages assignment of lead roles to individual banks for the districts allotted to them.
In India, a recent example of heteropessimism is men trending #MarriageStrike on Twitter when the Delhi HC was hearing a plea to criminalise marital rape.
Heteropessimism can be defined as public declarations of dissatisfaction with heterosexual relationships, by people who continue to be in those relationships.
Heteropessimism has been caused and shaped by larger social, economic and political currents which stem from patriarchy, gender inequality, an unfair burden of housework on women, and the pressure of ‘provider and protector’ roles on men.
Union Home Minister Amit Shah, inaugurated multiple projects and laid the foundation stone for many other schemes.
TRINETRA- State-level Command and control centre
e-FIR service for the crimes like mobile or two-wheeler theft.
These are a step toward digital governance.
Context: As per the Ministry of Earth Science (MoES) 34% of India’s coastline is under erosion. West Bengal has suffered the worst (60.5% of its coast is threatened by erosion).

Context: BIRAC (Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council) releases the Indian Bio-economy Report (IBER) 2022

PHEIC is the highest level of alert the global health body can issue. Only polio and SARS-CoV-2 were ongoing PHEIC prior to monkeypox.

 Habitat destruction and climate change biggest contributors, says International Union for Conservation of Nature
Monarchs, the most recognizable species of butterfly, are important pollinators and provide various ecosystem services such as maintaining the global food web.
These butterflies follow a unique lifestyle: They traverse the length and breadth of the American continent twice a year, feasting on nectar from a variety of flora. But they breed in only one particular plant — the milkweeds. The monarch larvae feed on this species on hatching.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh announced the setting up of joint theatre commands of the tri-services to enhance coordination among the armed forces.
The defence minister also said India is moving quickly from being the world’s largest importer of defence equipment to an exporter.
About Joint theatre commands

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